Africa is home to some of the world’s most endangered wildlife. To contribute to conservation efforts in a meaningful way, we need to learn all we can about these animals. So why not start with some fascinating facts about Africa’s endangered animals?
We’ve compiled a list of fascinating facts about some of Africa’s most endangered animals that will inspire your conservation efforts – great or small!
Why are African animals endangered?
The African animals in this list are endangered due to:
- habitat loss
- conflict with humans.
But we’re here to take a look at what makes some of Africa’s most endangered animals interesting besides their endangered status.
The long and short of the Rothschild’s giraffe
Of the nine giraffe species in the world, the Rothschild’s giraffe is one of the most endangered. In 2018, there were only 1,399 of these tall mammals remaining in the wild.
They’re easy to tell apart from other giraffes because the Rothschild’s giraffe is the only one with white “stockings” on its legs. Their legs are completely white from the knees down.
They’re similar to other giraffes because both male and female Rothschild’s giraffes are born with their “horns”, but these bony protrusions aren’t fused to the skull at first to avoid injury during birth. And like other giraffes, they only drink once every few days, even when there is plenty of water around.
Rothschild’s giraffes can be found in Kenya and Uganda in East Africa, but have already become extinct in Sudan and many other African countries.
Pygmy hippo facts
The pygmy hippopotamus lives in the forests of West Africa, and because they’re nocturnal, they’re not often seen on day-time excursions.
There are between 2,000 and 2,500 pygmy hippos left in the wild.
Here are some things you probably never knew about the pygmy hippo:
- Pygmy hippos are not tiny versions of the common hippo. In fact, they differ from the common hippo in a number of significant ways. For example, they have longer legs and less webbing between their toes. So they’re actually classified as a separate species.
- These creatures have smooth, thin skin, which is great for keeping them cool, but not so great when it comes to preventing sunburn. Because of this, pygmy hippos secrete a substance called “blood sweat” – an oily fluid that is pink in colour – from their skin. This moisturises their skin and protects it from the sun.
The alpha and omega of African wild dogs
Did you know that the African wild dog – also known as the painted hunting dog – hunts in packs of up to 20 dogs?
The largest groups of hounds are found in Southern Africa: in Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
And the dominant male and female – the alpha pair – are the only ones within the pack who will reproduce.
They’re social animals who travel in large packs, but the number of African wild dogs is declining each year.
With around 1,400 African wild dogs left in the wild, they’re Africa’s second most endangered carnivores – with the Ethiopian wolf taking first spot.
Facts about the African lion
The world’s second-largest big cat was once found in Africa, Asia and even Europe. Today, most lions live in Africa, with a small number found in just one location in India – Gir National Park.
Here are some interesting facts about the big cat known as the king of the jungle:
- Lions don’t actually live in the jungle. They prefer grasslands and plains. They were probably called the “king of the jungle” because of an incorrect association between Africa and jungles. Many people thought that Africa was covered in jungle terrain.
- A lion’s roar can be heard up to eight kilometres away.
- You can tell if one male lion is older than another by how dark and full their mane is. Older lions have darker and fuller manes than younger lions.
GVI wildlife conservation participants collect data on lions and other big cats in Karongwe Private Game Reserve. Their contributions to conservation research help to inform the decisions of authorities around maintaining the ecosystem of the reserve.
Further reading: Conserving wildlife: a tale of four big cats
Riveting rhino facts
There are five rhino species found around the world:
- the Sumatran rhino
- the Javan rhino
- the greater one-horned rhino
- the black rhino
- the white rhino.
All of these species are threatened. There are just over 5,000 black rhinos in existence today. And, although the southern white rhino is the least endangered rhino, there are only two – yes two – northern white rhinos left in the world.
The word rhinoceros means “nose horn”. Take a look at some interesting facts about this distinctive rhino feature:
- Rhino horns are made up of keratin – the same protein that our nails are made from – and their horns continue to grow throughout their lives.
- The longest rhino horn ever recorded was more than one metre long.
- Rhinos have been around since prehistoric times. The only major difference between rhinos then and now is that prehistoric rhinos had fur covering their skin, and they didn’t have horns!
GVI participants work on rhino poaching awareness programs in Limpopo, South Africa.
Further reading: What does rhino conservation mean today?
Contribute to the conservation of Africa’s endangered animals
These facts about African animals may make you want to race out and see these creatures as soon as you can, but getting involved in conservation-focused activities is the best way to make a positive impact.
You can contribute to wildlife conservation in Africa by taking part in one of GVI’s programs that focus on Africa’s endangered animals.
Take a look at GVI’s award-winning wildlife volunteer programs in Africa, sign up to volunteer and find out more fascinating facts about Africa’s endangered animals for yourself.